Democracy and governing in Moldova
e-journal, year VI, issue 117, May 1–16, 2008
Activity of Public Institutions
Studies, Analyses, Comments
Activity of Public Institutions
1.1. Appointments. Dismissals
Unaffiliated parliamentarian Nicolae Diatovschi has rejoined the parliamentary faction representing the Our Moldova Alliance.
1.2. Legal acts
Important: Many opposition lawmakers blocked the grand stand of the Parliament on May 16, 2008 and jammed the sitting. But the parliamentary majority continued to examine some drafts included on the agenda, without any debates and consideration stipulated by the Parliament’s Regulation (Art.66–69).
Law concerning protection of witnesses and other participants in criminal cases. The law ensures security of participants in criminal cases whose lives, body integrity, freedom or property are threatened, as they held evidence and accepted to provide in order to prove grave crimes. It stipulates the following security measures: protection of identity data of the protected person; hearing of the person by using special modalities; change of domicile or workplace or education institution; change of identity, look; installation of an alarm system at home of the protected person; change of telephone number of the protected person; protection of estate.
Law declaring the public utility of national interest of building works at the Cahul-Giurgiulesti railroad. It declares public utility of national interest the building works at the Cahul-Giurgiulesti railway and declares objects of expropriation the private real estates (fields and constructions) near villages and communes of Manta, Colibasi, Brinza, Valeni, Slobozia Mare and Cislita-Prut, the district of Cahul. The parliamentary opposition has bitterly criticised the decision and actions in this area, while the local public administration and residents from villages concerned have protested against expropriation of their fields in exchange for derisory compensations.
Decision concerning the concept of the automatic state information system "Elections" and implementation of the "State register of electors". The state register of electors is expected to ensure an operative control on the turnout of population at elections and will be implemented for the first time at the 2009 parliamentary elections. The implementation of the automatic system could build the infrastructure and mechanisms for the implementation of the electronic vote, but about 33 million lei is needed to implement the automatic system "Elections" and these sources have not been foreseen in the state and CEC budgets.
Note by ADEPT: The problem of recording electors and implementing the electronic vote was tackled more than once, but authorities have delayed the promotion of solutions in this area. For example, the new concept voted by the Parliament was elaborated in 2006, but the parliamentary majority has delayed its examination for more than a year and half, and this suspended the process of implementation, establishing and reservation of financial, technical resources, etc. In this situation, it will be actually impossible to implement the electronic vote at the 2009 parliamentary elections and thus voters who are abroad will be unable to cast their ballots.
Law on modification and completion of legal acts (pensions of military, employees of interior affairs institutions). Under amendments, a constant amount will be established for rises and supplements to pensions calculated on the basis of the minimum retirement pension. From 9.5 million lei (2008) up to 12 million lei (2010) will be additionally needed a year to implement these amendments.
Draft law approving the National Security Concept. The document approved in the first reading aims to regulate objectives of ensuring the national security, basic directions of the security policy of Moldova, general values, principles, risks and vulnerabilities in this area; international cooperation as a tool to ensure the national security, interconnection between interior and foreign policy; national security system and its reformation; perspectives to adopt the National Security Strategy. The permanent neutrality status of the country is proclaimed basic principle and headstone of the national security concept; the national security system and all actions aimed to ensure the national security will be based on this principle.
Note by ADEPT: Opposition factions and parliamentary parties (OMA, DPM, SDP, NLP, LDPM) have criticised the concept, in particular, the outlining of the neutrality of the state policy in this document, fearing that it would obstruct Moldova’s joining to Euro-Atlantic organisations. In its turn, the ruling party considers that the neutrality is the best solution for Moldova, with communists following the goal to "build a demilitarised state".
1.3. Parliamentary control. Statements
The parliamentary majority has turned down initiatives by the opposition:
- To organise hearings on the Transnistrian problem;
- To establish a special parliamentary commission to study the situation and problems occurred during the implementation of healthcare reforms;
- To hear minister of foreign affairs and European integration regarding effectiveness of Moldovan embassies and the way they treat Moldovan citizens abroad;
- To hear Customs Service director regarding the arrest of 4,500 Romanian books at the border, which a delegation from the city of Calarasi has tried to smuggle into Moldova.
OMA Deputy Ion Gutu has asked the Government and Prosecutor-General’s Office to provide details regarding the sale of a majority stock in S.A. "Moldasig" for a very low price.
Christian Democratic Deputy Iurie Rosca has asked minister of local public administration to provide information about actions taken by the ministry and Chisinau City Hall to clean up and rearrange the Valea Morilor area.
Christian Democratic Deputy Adriana Chiriac has asked minister of health and minister of local public administration to provide information about situation in Hincesti occurred after an inadequate person was appointed chief doctor of the district by force.
Communist Deputy Elena Bodnarenco has asked the Information and Security Service to check the way signatures have been collected in the district of Soroca to change the system of election of the Parliament and President of Moldova, actions held under the LDPM aegis.
Deputy Valentina Cusnir has demanded the Government to provide information about liquidation of investment funds and fate of patrimonial bonds deposited by citizens in these funds. In another interpellation, Cusnir has asked the Prosecutor-General’s Office to provide updated information regarding investigations of disappearance of Deputy Vlad Cubreacov, given recent confirmations of cooperation between Moldovan and Transnistrian law enforcement bodies.
National Liberal Deputy Vitalia Pavlicenco has asked the Prosecutor-General’s Office, Centre for the Struggle against Crimes and Corruption, Ministry of Information Development and Ministry of Construction and Territorial Development to confirm the affiliation of Voronin family to the building company "Moldconstructmarket". In another interpellation, Pavlicenco has asked the Ministry of Finance to provide detailed information about the use of supplementary allocations for renovation of the Presidency headquarters (more than 20 million lei in 2006–2007).
The OMA faction has presented statements concerning degrading freedom of the media in Moldova and situation around the small border traffic convention with the EU.
The faction representing the Democratic Party of Moldova has released a statement concerning degrading relations of the Republic of Moldova with Ukraine and Romania.
Deputy Ion Neagu has presented the stance of the European Action Movement towards anti-Romania and anti-Europe statements by Moldovan leadership.
National Liberal Deputy Vitalia Pavlicenco has presented a declaration condemning the foreign policy promoted by the communist governance.
The parliamentary faction representing the Christian Democratic People’s Party has released a statement concerning the attitude of Christian Democrats towards manifestations of groups which try to impose abnormal sexual practices to society like something normal.
2.1. Appointments. Dismissals
Vladimir Antosii, former minister of industry and infrastructure, was appointed director-general of the National Motor Transport Agency, which the Government has recently created.
The Government gave green light to an initiative by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration to recall Moldovan Ambassador to Turkey Mihail Barbulat.
Decision on actions aimed to accelerate internal gasification of localities. It approved the regulation on gasification of localities and methodology of establishing the rate for access of potential consumers to the gas providing network inside localities. Government representatives assured that these changes will reduce the gas connection rate much.
Note by ADEPT: Independent experts are sceptical over promises to reduce much the connection cost, as majority of entrepreneurs working in the area are private and they will not be interested to perform complex works without an appropriate profit. A state-owned enterprise only could help reduce the costs, but building capacities of the monopolist "Moldova-Gaz" are insufficient to cover current necessities. On the other hand, authorities have periodically acknowledged that prices are exaggerated and their reduction is imminent, but they did not progress in this respect (sitting of the Presidency in January 2005; special sitting of the Government and news conference by Building Agency director Igor Semenovker in January 2007; special sitting of the Presidency in February 2008). However, given the gasification of majority of localities, state-owned economic agents (components of S.A. "Moldova-Gaz" or created by the society) could help reducing the cost of connection works, especially after the society raised a revenue of over 600 million lei in 2007.
Decision approving the land cadastre, as of January 1, 2008. In comparison with January 1, 2007, the surface of arable fields has been enlarged by 2,200 hectares; vineyards by 1,400 hectares; orchards by 0,500 hectares; waters by 0,400 hectares, fields for the forestry fund by 4,700 hectares. At the same time, surfaces of fields from reserve fund of mayoralties were reduced by 6,500 hectares. All fields comprise 23.1 percent of public property, 21.5 percent of administrative territorial units and 55.4 percent of private property.
Decision establishing the governmental commission for the supervision of public procurements. The commission made of central public administration heads and civil society representatives will monitor the execution of the law on public acquisitions and related normative acts by the Agency for Material Reserves, Public Acquisitions and Humanitarian Aid.
Decision on record of public property and its circulation. It obliges state/municipal enterprises and public or public-private commercial societies to provide central or local public authorities with generalised information about size and circulation of property and charges specialised central bodies of public administration to collect, generalise and deliver to Government annual reports on management of public property.
2.3. Sittings. Decisions. Statements
Preoccupation with increasing transparency
After the chief of state had convoked a sitting to tackle transparency of central public administration authorities and their cooperation with the media, prime minister has instructed ministers and heads of central public authorities to contribute to enhancing the transparency of the executive by organising monthly news conference and optimise media services of their institutions.
Note by ADEPT: The Government has repeatedly asked subordinated authorities to be transparent, open and cooperative with the media and civil organisations, appointing functionaries in charge with these relations, but the things did not progress much apart from statements and instructions. Independent experts fear that actions in this area fail because decision-making transparency is not promoted through special legal and normative acts, while the "power vertical" system set up in the central public administration limits much the freedom of expression of functionaries, as they are obstructed to deliver information and statements "uncoordinated with the leadership".
On occasion of the World Press Freedom Day, the Government has released a statement saying that "the existence of a free press is capable to help achieving key goals of Moldovan Government, such as public administration reform, transparent and efficient use of public funds and anti-corruption fight." The Government pledges to provide a wider access to information of general interest, which corresponds to interests of the public, to ensure non-discriminatory access to official information and to consolidate capacities of law courts in examining cases on freedom of expression.
Under a presidential decree, the military ranking of division general was awarded to Ion Coropcean, head of the General Headquarters, commander of the National Army.
The "Honour Order" was awarded to Avigdor Liberman, chairman of the Israel-Moldova parliamentary group.
With the purpose to coordinate the honouring of commitments from Moldovan-community documents and agreements, Moldovan president has decreed the creation of the national commission for European integration and self-appointed to head it. Prime minister will be deputy chairperson of the commission and deputy speaker, a commission chairperson (both representing the PCRM), several ministers and presidential advisors, as well as chairperson of the Superior Council of Magistracy will be members to the commission.
Note by ADEPT: Unlike the precedent composition of the commission, the new structure of the commission does not include:
- Representatives of the parliamentary opposition;
- Many Government members (including Governor of Gagauzia);
- Representatives of the academia and civil society.
3.2. Sittings. Decisions. Statements
Transparency and access to public information
Moldova’s president has convoked a sitting on access of the media to official information and transparency of central public authorities, calling for the improvement of the existing mechanism of interaction between central authorities and the media and providing of official information about their activity to the public. In this context, Vladimir Voronin stressed the opportunity for central public administration heads to participate in diverse radio and TV programmes, thematic news conferences, talk-shows, recommending Government members to provide operative and ample information to the public regarding current situation in the country in various areas under the aspect of progresses and problems and ways to remedy them. He instructed Government members to be open and transparent with journalists.
New system to gather wheat reserve
Vladimir Voronin has convoked a sitting on the mechanism of gathering of the state food wheat reserve, with participants discussing proposals on modification of the present system of gathering of the state grain reserve. Food wheat reserves will be organised with a smaller financial participation of the state and with the contribution of grain exporters and voluntary participation of grain producers in the process of gathering of the state reserve. The Moldovan president welcomed the initiatives and asked the executive to minutely study the new system and make a decision in this respect.
Action Plan on anniversary of Moldovan State
The chief of state has convoked a sitting of the state commission in charge with actions dedicated to the 650th anniversary of the Moldovan State to examine a draft plan on scientific, informative-education actions, cultural-artistic actions, actions aimed to promote the value of patrimony (international, national, regional scientific conferences, symposiums, roundtables; editing of scientific researches, encyclopaedias, collections of documents on building and development of the state, appearance and evolution of Moldovan heraldry and currency, production of films, inauguration of thematic programmes, painting and photo exhibitions, festivals, folk song and dance festivals, introduction of jubilee coins, sets of stamps, etc.). The action plan stipulates the restoration of the cultural-historical heritage of the country. The draft action plan was accepted and the Government is due to finalise and approve it, in order to be implemented.
Special interest for constructions
Moldovan president convoked several sittings on May 3–15 regarding the reconstruction of the artistic centre for children and youths and renovation of the Republican Stadium. Also, Vladimir Voronin has paid fact-collection visits to the Capriana Monastic Complex, Curchi Monastery, TV channel Moldova 1, which are being renovated or will be amply reconstructed soon.
Meetings within Year of the Youth
The chief of state has met heads of unionist organisations of students, student senates, youth organisations from institutions of higher learning, who were provided the opportunity to raise questions and tell their opinions regarding solutions to problems of youths. Vladimir Voronin reiterated the importance of developing the infrastructure of student hostels by renovating, modernising and arranging them, as well as to essentially improve the nutrition of students, noting that he has instructed the Government to establish a commission in order to carry out an ample analysis of the state of things and work out a redress programme. He instructed the Ministry of Education and Youth, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration to work out initiatives aimed to facilitate the process of academic mobility to European states, and the Ministry of Education and Commerce will consider the organisation of summer practice of students from all specialities.
Meeting of Central European presidents
While participating in the Meeting of Central European Presidents in Ohrid, Macedonia, Vladimir Voronin has addressed participants and met German, Slovenian, Czech and Polish presidents.
1. Prices and inflation
Inflation jumping forward new peaks…
The Consumer Price Index (CPI) rose by 1.6 percent in April, compared with March, and the cumulated rate for four months of this year was by 5.8 percent higher than in December 2007. Prices of food products have grown the most, by 2.8 percent, prices of manufactured goods increased by 0.2 percent and tariffs for services provided to population advanced by 2.2 percent. In particular, meat prices have grown by 9.4 percent, rice by 10.6 percent, vegetal oil and eggs by 5.6 percent. Prices of building materials have increased by 2.4 percent. At the same time, tariffs for interurban motor transportation services rose by 34.7 percent in April (as new tariffs entered into force on April 1, 2008).
IMF experts who are on a working mission to Moldova on May 7–21 have raised concern with the high inflation rate. They have recently stated that the currency surplus in economy is a reason of the high inflation rate in Moldova. They noted that the currency rate has increased by over 40 percent last year and exceeded 27 billion lei. Fulfilling the objective of a low and stable inflation has become complicated on a short term after the recent rise of prices of food products. This occurs because, as expected, the so-called "initial impact" of higher prices of food products has modified the general level of prices.
2. Foreign trade
Trade deficit up to half of country’s budget in 1st quarter of 2008…
The trade balance deficit rose by more than 44 percent in the 1st quarter of 2008, compared with the similar period of 2007 or by over 214 million dollars, up to about 700 million dollars, which is equivalent to half of the state budget. The trade balance with the European Union reached a deficit of 283 million dollars and it exceeded 245 million dollars with the CIS. Imports have grown by about 38 percent and exports by 26 percent.
Overall, exports turned over about 347 million dollars in the first quarter. On the other hand, imports were worth about 1.046 billion dollars. Thus, the import/export coverage rate was 33.2 percent in January-March 2008, compared with over 36 percent in the 1st quarter of 2007, with imports exceeding exports threefold. According to estimates by economists, the trade balance deficit will reach about 3 billion dollars by the end of this year.
Moldovans send home more and more money…
Moldovans working abroad have sent more than 314 million dollars via commercial banks in the 1st quarter of 2008, which is by 33 percent more than in the similar period of 2007. According to NBM accounts, more than 74 percent of transfers in the period concerned came via rapid transfer systems. Thus, remittances accounted to nearly 123 million dollars in March only, or by 17 percent more than in February 2008.
Experts say that money transfers exceed official statistics in reality, with Moldovans also using alternative methods besides banks to send money. According to NBM statistics, remittances have grown by 35–40 percent a year from 1999 to 2007, so that official transfers have advanced about 14-fold in 1999–2007.
After being created last April to remedy current problems in Chisinau-Tiraspol relations, the activity of bilateral working groups was actually blocked after three rounds of debates. In this regard, the head of the OSCE Mission to Moldova, Philip Remler, and Minister of Reintegration Vasile Sova had to publicly raise their concern. Transnistrian leader Igor Smirnov has explained at a meeting with Russian Ambassador to Moldova Valeriy Kuzimin that the activity of the working groups is blocked because their experts have an indefinite status and it is unclear in general whether Chisinau has plans to respect previous agreements with Tiraspol (the period 1996–2001). Now Transnistria is interested to resolve concrete problems such as economic, ecological, transportation issues (for example, restoration of railway traffic). In turn, Chisinau wants to reveal the problem regarding property on railway network. Smirnov outlined that Chisinau authorities are not interested so far in discussing political matters, avoiding reaction to the draft "friendship and cooperation agreement between Moldova and Transnsitria" handed in to President Voronin during the April 11 meeting in Bender.
On background of the blocked activity of working groups and exchange of bitter remarks between Voronin and Smirnov, Brussels hosted on May 14 a meeting between Moldovan Speaker Marian Lupu and the head of the Tiraspol legislature, Evgeny Shevchyuk. The declared goal of the meeting organised with the support of the European Commission representative to Moldova, Kalman Mizsei, was to participate in debates on confidence-building actions via legislative institutions, as well as to discuss concrete and current projects such as joint fight against trafficking in human beings. Russian media (Nezavisimaya Gazeta) considers that the meeting between Marian Lupu and Evgeny Shevchyuk tested the "soft power" of the European Union in settling "frozen" conflicts. In all likelihood, the Brussels meeting aimed to establish long-term cooperation relations between young leaders who could succeed after the 2009 elections, taking over the control on the conflict resolution process, rather than to strengthen the confidence between "the two banks of the Dniester. In truth, President Voronin’s second presidential mandate will be over in April 2009 and both Russia and Transnistria are contesting Smirnov’s authority after he has been accused of embezzlement and protection of interests of the family clan. Also, a race between emblematical characters of the Transnistrian elite is observed here. Thus, Russian reports started panegyrising Transnistrian vice-president Alexandr Korolyov in February 2007, introducing him as a kind of "Transnistrian Putin", who would eventually replace old and decrepit Smirnov, as the latter is about to lose his authority in front of defiance by local oligarchy headed by Shevchyuk. Assaults by Ukrainian media against Smirnov have recently turned into accusations that his clan had terminated those who tried to compete with his family business.
Launch of the Neighbourhood Investment Facility (NIF)
On May 6, 2008, in Brussels was launched the EU’s Neighbourhood Investment Facility (NIF)- a new tool for strengthening the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) through the partnership among the European Commission, EU member states, ENP partner states and European Public Financial Institutions (EBRD, European Investment Bank). NIF will provide financial support in the form of grants to ease the lending operations of European Public Finance Institutions for carrying out the infrastructure projects in energy, environment and transport in the entire ENP area. NIF will also provide support for SMEs development and to social sector projects. The European Commission has already allocated to the NIF 100 million euro out of the 700 million euro planned for the period 2007–2013. According to recent estimations, NIF will generate up to 5–6 billion euro. NIF will be focused on countries that have Action Plans in the ENP framework: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Egypt, Georgia, Jordan, Lebanon, Moldova, Morocco, the occupied Palestinian territory, Tunisia and Ukraine.
Republic of Moldova – Romania
Moldovan-Romanian relations have been focused on overcoming the dissensions on signing the Convention on small cross-border traffic between Moldova and Romania.
The first step in this regard was made on May 6, 2008, in Strasbourg during a meeting between Andrei Stratan, Deputy Prime-minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs and European Integration, and Dana Raduta Matache, State Secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Romania. Although the information on the meeting’s outcome provided by the MFAEI press centre was meagre, on May 13, MFAEI announced in a statement that Moldova will resume the negotiations with Romania on the Moldovan-Romanian State Border Treaty and the Convention on small cross-border traffic.
Also, in the same statement, MFAEI proposes Romania to include the entire territory of Moldova (including Transnistria) in the sphere of action of the Convention on small cross-border traffic, and insists, again, on simultaneous signing of the Convention on small cross-border traffic and the Moldovan-Romanian State Border Treaty, if "Romania […] does not have any territorial or other claims over the Republic of Moldova".
The announced negotiations took place on May 14–15, 2008 in Bucharest. A press release circulated by the Romanian MFA indicates that during negotiations the experts from Moldova and Romania have presented their arguments and positions on the Moldova-Romanian State Border Treaty and the Framework Agreement on Strategic Partnership for Europe between the Government of Romania and the Government of the Republic of Moldova, but not on the Convention on small cross-border traffic that was not discussed. The press release does not present any information about the negotiations’ outcome, but specifies that the negotiations will continue, but already in Chisinau.
At the same time, the Romanian MFA declares that "there is no technical and legal conditionality between signing the Convention on small cross-border traffic and the Border Regime Treaty", since these treaties regulate different fields: the Convention on small cross-border traffic covers the simplified movement of inhabitants of the two countries residing in the neighbourhood of the common border, when the state border treaty regulates the technical aspects of the border.
Note by ADEPT. On May 11, 2008 Liberal-Democratic Party of Moldova and Our Moldova Alliance organized several meetings with the population of districts situated along the Prut, during which the signatures in support of signing the Convention on small cross-border traffic were collected. Other opposition parties – Social-Political Movement "European Action", Democratic Party of Moldova, Social Democratic Party – has also launched declarations of support for the signature of the Convention on small cross-border traffic.
Republic of Moldova – Japan
On May 14, 2008, the Governments of Moldova and Japan, represented by Igor Dodon, First Deputy Prime-minister and Minister of Economy and Trade, and Mutsuo Mabuchi, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Japan to the Republic of Moldova, signed an Agreement on Technical Cooperation. The agreement aims to strengthen the technical cooperation between Moldova and Japan and stipulates the dispatch of Japanese experts to Moldova and the provision of technical and training assistance. Igor Dodon stressed that Japan is one of the main development partners of the Republic of Moldova due to the assistance provided to Moldova during the past years. Thus, until now, Japan has provided technical assistance to Moldova worth 67 million US dollars as grants and 48.2 million US dollars as loans, and 151 Moldovan officials visited Japan to take note of Japanese experience in various economic and social sectors. Another 20 Moldovan specialists will visit Japan in 2008.
Republic of Moldova – Turkey
The new Ambassador of Turkey to the Republic of Moldova, Ahmet Ferit Ulker, has presented the copies of his letters of accreditation to Andrei Stratan, Deputy Prime-minister, Minister of Foreign Affairs and European Integration.
Republic of Moldova – Czech Republic
In the period May 12–13, 2008, in Prague took place a meeting for establishing the Joint Czech-Moldovan Commission for economical, industrial and technical-scientifical cooperation. The Moldovan delegation was headed by Tudor Copaci, Deputy Minister of Economy and Trade, and the Czech delegation – by Milan Hovorka, Deputy Minister of Industry and Trade. During the meeting the Regulations of the Joint Commission were approved and the Commission working bodies were established. In addition, was considered the existing framework of Moldovan-Czech cooperation, and analysed the prospects of future cooperation, especially in energy, road and rail transport infrastructure and agro-industrial fields.
Republic of Moldova – Council of Europe (CoE)
On May 6–7, 2008 Andrei Stratan, Deputy Prime-minister, Minister of Foreign Affairs and European Integration participated in the 118th session of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, held in Strasbourg. In Strasbourg Andrei Stratan met with Terry Davis, CoE Secretary General, Gunter Gloser, State Minister for European Affairs of the German MFA, and Raduta Dana Matache, State Secretary of the Romanian MFA.
At the session, Andrei Stratan delivered a speech that addressed several sensitive subjects for Moldova, such as European integration and settlement of the Transnistrian problem. In particular, Andrei Stratan reiterated the desire of the Republic of Moldova to move towards gradual European integration, including by signing a new legal framework with the EU that will give Moldova access to the four EU freedoms. With regard to Transnistrian problem, the Moldovan official gave assurances that the Republic of Moldova will continue to identify a solution to the Transnistrian problem within the "5+2" negotiations’ format that will respect its independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity. At the end of session, Sweden took over the six-month Chairmanship of the CoE’s Committee of Ministers from Slovakia.
Republic of Moldova – GUAM
On May 13, 2008 Chisinau held the 10th meeting of the Council of National Coordinators of the Organisation for Democracy and Economic Development GUAM, with participation of Deputy Foreign Ministers of the GUAM Member States and the GUAM Secretary General. At the meeting, were addressed several topics linked to the GUAM activity and organizational development, including: extending the partnership with the USA, EU, Council of Europe and other international partners, and finalizing the draft Protocol to the Agreement on creation of GUAM Virtual Center for combating terrorism, organised crime, illicit drug trafficking and other types of crimes and the draft Agreement on protecting intellectual property.
Studies, Analyses, Comments
Evolutions and stratagems on real estate market
Iurie Gotisan, 16 May 2008
The latest evolution of the real estate market and high prices of apartments and houses in Moldova make those willing to buy housing thinking. Prices of apartments (in particular in the capital) have grown very much in the last seven years