No 1381-XIII of 21.11.97
Monitorul Oficial al R.Moldova No 81/667 of 08.12.1997
General Definitions and Principles
Chapter 1. General Definitions And Principles
Article 1. General Definitions Used in this Code
For purposes of this Code, the following terms have the indicated meanings:
"Electoral poster" refers to the appeals, statements, photographs and other materials used by electoral contestants for purposes of electoral propaganda.
"Electoral propaganda" refers to the preparation and distribution of information seeking to determine the voters to vote for one or another electoral contestant.
"Voter" refers to a citizen of the Republic of Moldova eligible to vote.
"Election", unless specified otherwise, refers to the election of deputies to Parliament and the local public administration bodies, or conducting a referendum. It also stands for the actions of citizens, parties, other socio-political organisations, electoral blocs, electoral and other state bodies connected with the preparation of voter rolls, the nomination and registration of candidates, pre-electoral campaigning, voting and the tabulation of results, as well as for other election-related actions under current laws.
"General elections" refers to any type of elections conducted within one day - Sunday, or any other day - indicated in the decree establishing the date of elections, throughout the entire territory of the republic.
"Early elections" refers to the elections of the elective body upon termination of its mandate before term, dissolution or in the event of territorial-administrative reorganisation.
"Electoral bloc" refers to voluntary union of two or more parties and/or other socio-political organisations, which are registered with the Central Electoral Commission in the event of parliamentary and general local elections, or with the district electoral councils in the event of new local elections for joint participation in elections.
"Electoral campaign" refers to the time period allowed for activities aimed at determining the voters to cast their votes for one or another candidate, commencing for each electoral contestant on the day he/she is registered with the Central Electoral Commission or district electoral council, and ending on the day of his/her exclusion or the day of the election.
"Candidate" refers to an individual who runs for an eligible public position on behalf of parties, other socio-political organisations or electoral blocs, as well as independently.
"Independent candidate" refers to an individual proposing his/her candidacy for an eligible public position, independently of parties, other socio-political organisations or electoral blocs.
"District" refers to an administrative electoral unit where elections and referendums are organized and conducted.
"Code of Conduct" refers to a convention concluded between electoral competitors and representatives of mass-media regarding the modality of unfolding and coverage of the electoral campaign in a way that excludes the harming of dignity and reputation of electoral competitors.
"Electoral contestants" refers:
- in a parliamentary election, to independent candidates, registered with the Central Electoral Commission, as well as to parties, other socio-political organisations and electoral blocs whose lists of candidates have been registered with the Central Electoral Commission;
- in local elections, to parties, other socio-political organisations, electoral blocs and individuals running for the position of mayor or councillor to the local council, registered by corresponding district electoral councils.
"Appeal" request to cancel or revise an act, a decision or an action.
"Central Electoral Commission" and "CEC" refer to the commission appointed to ensure proper election administration and which operates continuously under this Code.
"Nomination of Candidates" refers to a procedure of adoption by parties and socio-political organizations of decisions regarding candidatures for elective positions, unfolded during the sessions of governing bodies of the parties and other social-political organizations, in accordance with their statutes, after the announcement of the date of elections.
"Domicile" refers to a person's permanent place of residence, confirmed in the ID with the "domicile" stamp.
"Voting rights" refers to a citizen's constitutional right to elect, be elected and vote with respect to the most important issues of the state and the society on the whole and/or issues of special local interest.
"List of candidates" refers to the list of candidates proposed by parties, other socio-political organisations and/or electoral blocs for participation in elections.
"Voter rolls" refers to the lists of citizens with the right to vote residing within a precinct.
"Petition" refers to the list of voter signatures collected in support of candidates or to initiate a referendum.
"Locality" herein refers to a territorial-administrative unit, organized according to current laws (district, municipality, town, village (commune) and territorial-administrative unit with special status).
"The minimum of special places for electoral posters" refers to specially arranged places for electoral posters, placed in one locality. The panels for electoral posters are placed in a well-balanced way in the radius of the whole locality. The minimum area given to a candidate on a panel is 1 square meter. The space for electoral publicity granted to the candidates should be equal for everybody.
"Electoral bodies" refers to bodies that organize the election of deputies to Parliament and the local public administration authorities and referendums.
"Socio-political organizations" refers to parties, fronts, leagues, political people's movements, registered according to the Law on Parties and Other Socio-Political Organisations.
"Parties" refers to voluntary citizen organisations, organized and registered according to the Law on Parties and Other Socio-Political Organisations.
"Electoral period" refers to the time period commencing on the day when the date of elections is officially announced and ending on the day when the final election results are confirmed by the competent bodies.
"Individuals entitled to observe the electoral procedures" refers to observers of the electoral contestants at precincts, foreign observers accredited by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, observers accredited by the Central Electoral Commission, as well as representatives of mass media.
"Referendum" refers to the vote of the people with respect to major issues of the state and the society as a whole, intended to solve these, as well as to citizen consultation on local issues of special interest.
"Residence" refers to a person's temporary place of residence, confirmed in the ID with the "residence" stamp.
"Revocation" refers to withdrawal of the mandate of an individual holding an elected public office by a court's decision and of the mandate of the mayor by local referendum.
[Modified via Law no.31-XV of 13.02.03, in force as of 28.02.03]
[The modification introduced via Law no. 1381-XV of 21.11.97 was found unconstitutional through the Constitutional Court Ruling no.13 of 14.03.02]
[Modified via Law no.842-XV of 14.02.2002]
Modified via Law no.796-XV of 25.01.2002]
[Modified via the Law no.1227-XIV of 21.09.2000]
[Notion introduced according to the Law no.894-XIV of 23.03.2000]
[Notion introduced according to the Law no.268-XIV of 04.02.99]
Article 2. Principles of Participation in Elections
(1) Citizens of the Republic of Moldova participate in elections on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage, with free and secret voting.
(2) Participation in elections is based on the citizen's free will. No one may exercise pressure on a voter to force him/her to participate or not in the elections, nor on the expression of a voter's free will.
(3) Citizens of the Republic of Moldova residing outside of the country shall enjoy full voting rights under this Code. Representatives of diplomatic and consular missions shall be obliged to help these citizens exercise their voting rights.
Article 3. Universality of Voting
Citizens of the Republic of Moldova have the right to elect and be elected irrespective of race, nationality, ethnic origin, language, religion, gender, opinion, political affiliation, property or social origin.
Article 4. Equality of Voting
Every voter is entitled to one vote in one election. All votes have equal legal effect.
Article 5. Direct Voting
Every voter votes in elections personally. Voting on behalf of other individuals is prohibited.
Article 6. Secret Voting
Voting in elections or referendums is secret. Therefore, any possibility to control a voter's will shall be excluded.
Article 7. Free Voting
No one has the right to exert any pressure on a voter to make him/her vote or not, nor to prevent him/her from expressing his/her will.
Article 8. Election Day
Elections shall be held within one day, on a Sunday, or any other day as indicated in the decree establishing the date of the election, throughout the entire territory of the republic or of the corresponding area.
Article 9. Place to Exercise the Voting Right
(1) The voting right shall be exercised in the locality where the voter is registered for a permanent residence visa, unless otherwise stipulated in this Code.
(2) In the case when the voter has a domicile and residence at the same time, in the period of the residence validity, the voter votes in the locality in which he/she has his/her residence.
Article 10. Voting for One Electoral Contestant
In an election a voter votes for one single electoral contestant, and expresses his/her will with respect to a single issue in a referendum.
Chapter 2. The Right To Elect And Be Elected. Limitations
Article 11. The Right to Elect
Citizens of the Republic of Moldova, who by the day of the elections have reached the age of 18, have the right to vote in elections in the Republic of Moldova, except for those deprived of this right.
Article 12. The Right to Be Elected
Citizens of the Republic of Moldova eligible to vote and meeting the requirements set forth in this Code have the right to be elected.
Article 13. Limitations
(1) The following individuals cannot vote:
(2) The following individuals cannot be elected:
- those who do not meet the requirements specified in Article 11;
- those declared incapacitated by a final decision of a court of law;
[Letter b) modified via the Law no.796-XV of 25.01.2002]
- those sentenced to imprisonment by a final decision of a court of law.
- military personnel in active service;
[Let.a) in the wording of the Law no.268-XIV of 04.02.99]
[Let.b) abrogated, the rest are renumbered according to the Law no.403-XIV of 14.05.99]
- persons mentioned in paragraph 1;
- persons convicted to deprivation of liberty by a final court decision serving their sentence in detention centers.
[Let.c (d) introduced via Law no.268-XIV of 04.02.99]
[Paragraph 3 abrogated via Law no.268-XIV of 04.02.99]
(3) Citizens of the Republic of Moldova who are not entitled to be members of a political party or other socio-political organisation as well as Government members and civil servants, because of the position they hold, shall suspend their position in office upon their registration as electoral contestants.
[Paragraph (3) modified via the Law no. 842-XV of 14.02.2002]
[Paragraph (3) added via the Law no.796-XV of 25.01.2002]
[Paragraph (3) abrogated via Law no.268-XIV of 04.02.99]
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