Chair of PCRM
The Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova (PCRM) was founded on 22 October 1993, registered with the Ministry of Justice on 27 April 1994 and re-registered on 15 January 1999. PCRM is a political party with the doctrine of democratic socialism.
Since its foundation, PCRM had been governed by three co-chairs: Vladimir Voronin, Andrei Neguta and Fiodor Manolov. During 1994–2001, Vladimir Voronin was the First Secretary of CC PCRM, and since 22 April 2001 he has been the Chair of the Party of Communists.
The Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova had been the ruling party during 2001–2009. After the parliamentary election of July 2009, PCRM has been an opposition parliamentary party.
PCRM is member of the Union of Communist Parties (UPC-PCUS) and member of the Party of the European Left.
After the Communist Party was banned in August 1991, an initiative group was set up, headed by Vladimir Voronin, who concentrated all its efforts on cancelling the suspension law and on the re-registration of the party. The Committee, based on the Law on Parties and other Social-Political Organizations, started the process of collecting signatures to establish the new Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova (PCRM).
On 22 October 1993, the first founding conference of PCRM took place, attended by 169 delegates, representing the party organizations and committees from Chisinau, Balti, Comrat, Cahul, Soroca, Drochia, Straseni and other districts from the country. During the conference, PCRM was declared as established, the Statute approved, the party’s Declaration of Principles pronounced, and the Republican Council of the Party elected, headed by three co-chairs: Vladimir Voronin, Andrei Neguta and Fiodor Manolov. During the conference, an appeal was made to all who want to become members of PCRM. The Party Republican Soviet started forming the party structures.
On 8 April 1994 the second PCRM founding conference was held, during which some amendments to PCRM Statute and governing bodies were operated (Fiodor Manolov was dismissed from the position of co-chair of the Party Republican Soviet). During the founding conferences, PCRM declared itself the successor of the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Communist Party of Moldova. On 27 April 1994, PCRM was officially registered.
The 1st PCRM Congress was attended by 389 persons, delegated by 3100 party members from 165 primary organizations and 35 district and town party committees. The Congress adopted the party’s program, introduced some changes in the Statute and elected the Central Committee (CC) and the Central Revision Commission (CRC) of PCRM. Plenary of the CC elected the Executive Political Committee of CC and appointed Vladimir Voronin as the First Secretary of the PCRM Central Committee.
In March 1995, PCRM joined the Union of Communist Parties — Communist Party of the Soviet Union (UPC-PCUS), and in April 1995 the press authority of PCRM — the “Communist” newspaper was launched.
On 30 August 1996, the second extraordinary PCRM Congress was held, were the PCRM’s strategy and tactics for the presidential election campaign of November-December 1996 was discussed and adopted. The Congress decided that the party will participate in the presidential election and appointed Vladimir Voronin as the PCRM presidential candidate. He got 10.26% of votes in the first round of the presidential elections. The Party supported Petru Lucinschi in the second round.
The Congress was attended by 389 delegates, representing 417 primary party organizations from all administrative-territorial structures of Moldova. The Congress reviewed the results of the PCRM election campaign for the 1996 presidential elections, set the objectives for the 1998 parliamentary elections and tactics of PCRM during the election campaign. The Congress adopted some amendments in the Party Program.
Following the 1998 elections, PCRM faction (40 seats) was the parliamentary opposition to the Alliance for Democracy and Reforms (ADR) and in November 1999 passed together with the Christian Democratic Popular Front (CDPF) a motion of no-confidence in the Sturza Government. PCRM did not support the 1999 initiative of President Petru Luchinschi to organize a republican consultative referendum to change the governing system in Moldova for a presidential one. Instead, on 5 July 2000, the PCRM parliamentary faction supported the amendment of the governing form from semi-presidential republic to a parliamentary republic.
In December 1999, PCRM held the first republican party conference, during which the Strategy of Socio-Economic Development of the Republic of Moldova was discussed and adopted as an alternative governing program of PCRM governing and mid-term activity.
During the early parliamentary elections of 25 February 2001, PCRM got 71 of the 101 seats in the Parliament, a parliamentary majority more than enough to amend the Constitution and appoint the head of the state. On 20 March 2001, PCRM MP Eugenia Ostapciuc was elected as Speaker of the Parliament and on 4 April 2001, the First Secretary of PCRM, Vladimir Voronin, was elected as the President of the Republic of Moldova. On 19 April of the same year, PCRM approved the nominal structure of Tarlev I Government and its Work Program “Economic Revival — Revival of the Country”.
The Congress was attended by 905 primary party organizations in all administrative-territorial structures of Moldova. The delegates made some amendments to the party’s Program and Statute, establishing 2 new positions: Chair of Communist Party and Secretary Executive of the Party’s Central Committee. On 22 April 2002, Vladimir Voronin was elected as the Chair of the party, and Victor Stepaniuc, the leader of PCRM parliamentary faction, as Secretary Executive. The Congress also appointed the new structure of the Executive Political Committee of CC.
On 27 September 2003 the Party of Civic Dignity of Moldova joined PCRM.
The 5th PCRM Congress was attended by 630 of delegates from 1670 primary party organizations (from villages, towns and districts). The Congress re-elected Vladimir Voronin as PCRM Chair and appointed the composition of the Central Committee and Central Revision Commission of PCRM. During the Congress they stressed that PCRM is a modern European left party, which aims at European integration of Moldova, by modernizing its society. Also, they decided to initiate the development of a new Work Program of the Party, adjusted to existing social-economic and political realities. The newly elected CC Plenary and CRC were convened after the 5th PCRM Congress. PCRM CC plenary elected the members of the Executive Political Committee and Valeriu Sava and Victor Stepaniuc were elected as PCRM CC secretaries.
Following the parliamentary elections of 6 March 2005, PCRM got an impressive victory and 56 seats in the Parliament. It allowed PCRM to promote, with the support of PPCD, PDM and PSL, its leader Vladimir Voronin in the position of head of the state for the second mandate. On 19 April 2005, PCRM approved the Work Program and the nominal structure of Tarlev II Government. After the dismissal of Tarlev II Government, on 19 March 2008, PCRM approved the new composition of the Government, headed by Prime Minister Zinaida Greceanii and its governing program for 2008–2009, entitled Progress and Integration.
On 13 January 2007, PCRM became the first left party in CIS, which became full member of the Party of the European Left. Two PCRM members — Grigore Petrenco and Irina Vlah became members of the Executive Committee of the Party of the European Left.
The 6th PCRM Congress was attended by 412 delegates, representing municipal and district party organizations, and foreign guests from the communist parties of China, Ukraine, Russia and representatives of the Party of the European Left and the Socialist Alliance Party of Romania. During the Congress, the PCRM Chair, Vladimir Voronin, presented the PCRM CC political report and some amendments were introduced to the party’s Statute.
The Congress adopted a new Party Program, which established the new strategic objectives for PCRM — defending sovereignty and strengthening the statehood; restoring the territorial integrity; modernization of the Republic of Moldova by a gradual transition from an agrarian economy and bureaucratic capitalism towards a postindustrial society, based on knowledge, competences, modern technology, high living standards and democratic culture. The Congress also elected the new members of the Central Committee (CC), Executive Political Committee of CC and the Central Revision Commission (CRC) of PCRM. The new members of the Executive Political Committee are Vladimir Voronin, Vladimir Vitiuc, Anatolie Zagorodnii, Alexandr Isaev, Victor Mindru, Grigore Petrenco, Svetlana Popa, Doina-Maria Rotaru and Marc Tkaciuk. The Congress unanimously elected Vladimir Voronin as Party Chair.
The 6th PCRM Congress aimed at modernizing the Party and bringing more youth into the party elite and at opening PCRM. Note that the 6th PCRM Congress is the first such event to allow free media access, which were broadcast online.
Following the announcement of preliminary results of the parliamentary elections, held on 5 April 2009, according to which the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova got 49.48% of votes, or 60 seats in the Parliament, widespread youth protests erupted in Chisinau, which degenerated in vandalizing the Parliament and Presidency headquarters. Protesters accused PCRM of rigging election results. Initially, the opposition parties — PL, PLDM and AMN — made common cause with the protesters, but the actions of 7 April 2009 determined the leaders of opposition parties not to take on a major role in conducting the protests, which was later denied by PCRM.
Actions that followed after the street protests, in particular, the mistreatment of young people in police stations, determined PL, PLDM and AMN to take a solid attitude in relation to PCRM. Thus, the three factions declared that they no longer wanted to help PCRM hold the reins of power and refused to give the “golden vote” (the 61st vote), which the election of the president of the country depended on. Hence, the early parliamentary elections of 29 July 2009 occurred as a result of the failed attempts to elect the president.
On 10 June 2009, the former Speaker of the Parliament (2005–2009), Marian Lupu, announced in a public statement his withdrawal from the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova, given that his interests were not aligned to the party’s interests any more. In 2005, Marian Lupu was elected as MP on PCRM’s list and later, elected as Speaker of the Parliament.
On 15 December 2009, the communist MPs Vladimir Turcan, Victor Stepaniuc, Ludmila Belcencova and Valentin Guznac left the PCRM parliamentary faction. They stated that they took this step because they disagreed with the PCRM decision of 7 December 2009, by which they boycotted the presidential elections and worsened the political crisis in Moldova. Later, the decision to leave PCRM was taken by communist MP Svetlana Rusu, stating that she wanted to join the “United Moldova” Party.
The Congress was attended by 454 delegates from all the districts of the country, and the whole PCRM leadership headed by Vladimir Voronin, PCRM MPs, CYUM activists. During the congress, the new leadership of the organization was elected, the further objectives and tasks were set. Inna Supac was elected the CYUM leader, Maxim Bolgar — the Secretary of CYUM CC for organizational work and Alina Palii — Secretary for ideological work. Also, the congress adopted the resolution condemning the attempts of the governing parties to rewrite the history, the resolution on disastrous youth policy of the new Government and the resolution on the parliamentary majority repeating the shameful fate of the Country’s Council of 1918.
Following the requests submitted by Igor Dodon on modernization of the Communist Party of the Republic of Moldova, as well as against the background of incapacity of parliamentary parties to elect the head of the state, on 4 November 2011 the Members of Parliament Igor Dodon, Zinaida Greceanii and Veronica Abramciuc announced that they left the PCRM parliamentary faction. According to them, the purpose of the decision is complex, specifically “to avoid early elections, elect the president of the country, reform the government and ensure political and social stability”. The decision of the three MPs to leave PCRM was taken two days after Igor Dodon submitted a program of modernization to the PCRM leadership. The modernization program consisted of 10 items that provided changes in the PCRM activity, including in the decision making of the party, cooperation with media and civil society.
During the Parliament session of 7 June 2012, the communist MPs Vadim Misin, Oleg Babenco and Tatiana Botnariuc left PCRM faction. They stated that they disagreed with the continuous protests, organized by Party of Communists against the Alliance for European Integration. In addition, the three MPs said they would remain in constructive opposition to the Governing Alliance. Also, during the Parliament session of 28 September 2012, the communist MP Ion Ceban announced his departure from PCRM faction, invoking objective and subjective reasons.
463 delegates from all districts of the Republic of Moldova and guests from abroad, representatives of communist parties from the Transnistrian region, Russia, Belarus, Romania and Brussels participated in the Congress. The main task of the Congress was to elect the new leadership of the party and set new objectives for PCRM development in the following period. Delegates in Congress voted unanimously Vladimir Voronin in the position of Chair of the Communist Party, and reconfirmed the position of Iurie Muntean as Secretary Executive of PCRM Central Committee. In addition, the congress elected a new composition of CC and excluded from the party Vadim Misin, Oleg Babenco and Tatiana Botnariuc. Also, the congress adopted three statements: “on promoting the neutrality of the country as a factor of ensuring statehood”, “on promoting the idea of accession to the Eurasian Customs Union” and “on the severe socio-economic situation in the country as a consequence of AEI governance”.
Hiding the tragic incident from December 2012 in the Royal Forest, which involved several judges, prosecutors and public officials, and raider attacks on some financial institutions from the Republic of Moldova contributed to the dissolution of AEI II.
On 13 February 2013, PLDM leader, Vlad Filat, announced that the Liberal Democratic Party of Moldova withdrew from the Founding Agreement of the Alliance for European Integration II, stating the need to review the political agreement “as in its current form, it became an obstacle in governing the country and led to the oligarchization and criminalization of the country.”
On 15 February 2013, the National Anti-Corruption Centre started a number of searches in the Government and Tax Inspectorate, and as a result, the head of the Tax Inspectorate, Nicolae Vicol, was arrested. On the same day, with the vote of PLDM and PCRM, the position of the First Deputy Speaker of the Parliament Vlad Plahotniuc, who previously announced his resignation, was cancelled. Vlad Plahotniuc advised Vlad Filat to resign from the position of prime minister.
Later, on 28 February 2013, the Party of Communist of the Republic of Moldova registered in the Parliament a motion of no-confidence against the Filat Government. The reason invoked by the communists was that the Executive became the core of some corruption scandals and many members of the Government were involved in criminal and corruptible schemes that affected the State budget.
Thus, on 5 March 2013, the parliamentary factions of PDM, PCRM, the socialists group, unaffiliated MPs Mihai Godea and Serghei Sirbu granted the vote of no-confidence against the Government of the Republic of Moldova, led by Vlad Filat.
Since 23 September 2013, MPs from the faction and supporters of the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova organized protests, announcing the beginning of the “Velvet Revolution”. The protests started in front of the General Prosecutor’s Office with slogans: “the Prosecutor and the Government, Out!”, “Revolution!”, “Elections!”. Protesters asked for the criminal investigation of the former Prime Minister Vlad Filat and current Prime Minister Iurie Leanca for alleged irregularities committed while exercising their duties. Later, the next target of protesters was announced — the headquarter of the public television “Moldova 1”, to “invite all to join, to stop disinformation and censorship”. These actions confirmed the promises of PCRM Chair Vladimir Voronin, who said in advance that starting with 23 September 2013 his party would start “disobedience acts” and protests across the country. These actions, according to communists, should end when the Government is dismissed and early parliamentary elections take place.
On 7 June 2014, the following members of the Executive Political Committee of the Central Committee of PCRM were excluded during the plenary session of the PCRM Central Committee: Iurie Muntean, Secretary Executive, Marc Tkaciuk and Grigore Petrenco. Tkaciuk and Petrenco were also excluded from the PCRM Central Committee. PCRM leader, Vladimir Voronin explained that the three “were excluded from PCRM leadership due to the fact that the party faces some difficulties and due to shortcomings in their work”. The excluded MPs stated that the decision had been unlawful and contravened the PCRM Statute.
On 29 December 2014, during the first meeting of the newly-convoked Parliament, the PCRM Member of Parliament Irina Vlah announced her departure from the communist faction. She motivated her decision by the fact that “the PCRM electorate felt betrayed due to change in the formation’s external policy”. Irina Vlah also stated that she would independently stand for the election of Bashkan of Gagauzia of 22 March 2015.
On 23 January 2015, the Founding Agreement of the Political Alliance for an European Moldova, consisting of PLDM and PDM, was signed. On the same day, with the votes of PDM, PLDM and PCRM, Adrian Candu was elected as Speaker of the Parliament, the candidate nominated by PDM, and Liliana Palihovici (PLDM) and Vladimir Vitiuc (PCRM) were elected as Deputy Speakers of the Parliament. Later, on 18 February 2015, with the votes of 60 MPs of PLDM, PDM and PCRM the Government led by Chiril Gaburici was formed.
On 15 October 2015, at the first meeting of the Parliament in the autumn-winter session, the head of PLDM Vlad Filat was deprived of parliamentary immunity by votes of 79 MPs from PDM, PL, PCRM and PSRM factions. After that, following a corresponding request, the Prosecutor General Corneliu Gurin came to the plenary of the Parliament to inform about the existing doubts and the testimony of Ilan Sor, according to which Vlad Filat was allegedly involved directly in the fraud at Banca de Economii, in corruption and trading in influence. Soon after the withdrawal of immunity, he was detained right in the Parliament for 72 hours and escorted to the National Anticorruption Center.
Later, on 22 October 2015, a group of PCRM and PSRM MPs registered in the Parliament a motion of no-confidence against the Strelet Government, on grounds of “suspicions of corruption” and “deviation of the Prime Minister from his duties, by supporting Vlad Filat (who is in pre-trial detention)”. Therefore, on 29 October 2015, Strelet Government was dismissed by the votes of 65 MPs from PDM, PCRM and PSRM factions, while 18 MPs from PLDM faction voted against it.
On 21 December 2015, 14 (of 21) communist MPs, headed by the Chair of PCRM parliamentary faction, Violeta Ivanov, announced, during a press conference, their departure from PCRM faction.
Later, on 24 December 2015, the 14 MPs (Violeta Ivanov, Victor Mindru, Galina Balmos, Alexandr Bannicov, Boris Golovin, Anatolie Gorila, Elena Gudumac, Corneliu Mihalache, Petru Porcescu, Artur Resetnicov, Sergiu Stati, Vladimir Vitiuc, Igor Vremea, Anatolie Zagorodnii) and PDM faction announced that they formed the Social-Democratic Platform for Moldova.
The Communist Party of the Republic of Moldova (PCRM) decided during the formation’s 20th Plenary of 3 September 2016 to boycott the presidential elections. PCRM believes that the Constitutional Court Ruling No 7 of 4 March 2016, which provided for the return to direct election of the country’s president, is unconstitutional. In these circumstances, PCRM plenary reviewed three behavior strategies: not to get involved in the elections; to support the candidate of another party, with visions similar to the ones of PCRM; to boycott the elections, urging citizens not to participate.
The PCRM plenary decided to boycott, and PCRM leader, Vladimir Voronin, argued that decision as follows: “A new hostage-president will be elected as a result of the planned elections. Without any powers, without any possibility to influence the situation in the society, and without any chance to save the country from the governing criminals, who captured it”. To substantiate the PCRM decision, Vladimir Voronin invoked the successful boycotting by his party of the referendum of 23 May 1999 on the intention of transforming Moldova into a presidential republic and of the referendum of 5 September 2010 on the return to direct election of the country’s president. PCRM was successful with those two boycotts. Only 30.3% of voters showed up, with the validation threshold being 1/3.
The Delegates to the Congress elected the governing and revision bodies of the political formation, approved amendments and addenda to the PCRM Program and Statute. In his activity report, the Communist Chair, Vladimir Voronin, said that during the last four years PCRM had been hit many times, the largest being caused by the departure of the 14 Communist MPs from the parliamentary faction and from the party, six of which were members of the Executive Committee. Also, Vladimir Voronin reiterated its position regarding the 2016 presidential election, regarding them as unlawful and unconstitutional.
After hearing the activity report, the Congress delegates re-elected Voronin as chair of PCRM. At the same time, the Congress changed the institution of the secretary executive of the PCRM Central Committee into the institution of CC secretaries, with Elena Bodnarenco, Oleg Reidman and Constantin Staris being elected as secretaries.
Sursa: Barometrul de Opinie Publică, IPP
137 seats in district (rayonal) and municipal councils (12.28%)
1,178 seats in town, village/commune and Comrat municipal councils (11.15%)
77 seats of mayor (8.57%)
21 seats (17.48% votes) ↓21
434 seats in district (rayonal) and municipal councils (38.75%)
3,441 seats in town, village/commune and Comrat municipal councils (32.37%)
203 seats of mayor (22.61%)
42 seats (39.34% votes) ↓6
48 seats (44.69% votes) ↓12
60 seats (49.48% votes) ↑4
465 seats in district (rayonal) and municipal councils (41.44%)
4,220 seats in town, village/commune and Comrat municipal councils (39.73%)
334 seats of mayor (37.35%)
56 seats (45.98% votes) ↓15
615 seats in district (rayonal) and municipal councils (54.62%)
5,416 seats in town and village/commune councils (49.96%)
368 seats of mayor (40.98%)
71 seats (50.07% votes) ↑31
118 seats in district (judet) and Chisinau municipal councils (37.82%)
2,235 seats in municipal, town and village/commune councils (36.61%)
124 seats of mayor (19.71%)
40 seats (30.01% votes)
206 seats in district (rayonal) and municipal councils (16.32%)
848 seats in local councils (8.00%)
43 seats of mayor (5.40%)